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Union Budget 2023


The Union Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs, Nirmala Sitharam, presented the Union Budget 2023-24 in Parliament on Wednesday. The Union budget was the 5th budget of Modi 2.0. Big boosters for taxpayersrailwaysjob creation and capex were announced. Nirmala Sitharaman also highlighted that the Indian economy is on the right path and headed towards a bright future.

Aim of Union budget 2023:

  • Opportunities for citizens with a focus on youth.
  • Growth and job creation.
  • Strong and stable macroeconomic environment.
  • Also enable women’s self-help groups to reach the next stage of economic empowerment.
  • Similarly helping self-help groups with supplying raw materials, marketing products and branding.

Seven priorities of Saptarishi

Image showing the 7 priorities of Saptarishi

Major Highlights

  • Per capita income has more than doubled to ₹1.97 lakh in 9 years.
  • The Indian economy has jumped from the 10th to the 5th largest in the world in the past nine years.
  • According to government estimates, the nominal GDP will grow by 10.5% in 2023-24.
  • 7,400 crore digital payments of ₹126 lakh crore took place through UPI (Unified payments interface) in 2022.
  • Around 220 crore Covid of 102 crore persons completed.
  • EPFO (Employees provident fund organization) membership has more than doubled to 27 crores.
  • 11.7 crore household toilets built under Swachh Bharat Mission.
  • Similarly 47.8 crore PM Jan Dhan bank accounts.
  • Insurance covers 44.6 crore people under PM Suraksha Bima and PM Jeevan Jyoti Yojana.

Main Tax proposal in the finance bill

  • There have been changes to the income tax regime. There are now five tax slabs instead of six.
  • A charitable trust must apply 85% of its income within a year to qualify for income tax exemption.
  • Online game winnings will be subject to a 30% tax deductible at source.
  • Capital gains from the sale of residential property can deduct to the extent of the purchase or construction of another residential property. The deduction will capped at Rs 10 crore.
  • Income from investments in life insurance policies will be taxable if a premium of Rs 5 lakh is paid in any year.
  • Moreover this extension allows startup companies to deduct up to 100% of their profits if they incorporate within this period and meet other conditions. Hence the end date of the deduction period extend from 31 March 2023 to 31 March 2024.

Direct Taxes

New Income tax slabs under new tax regimes:

Table showing New Income tax slabs under new tax regimes.
  • An individual with an annual up to three lakhs will have tax exemption.
  • Individuals with an annual income of 9 lakhs will pay 5% taxes.
  • The annual income of 15 lacks will fetch Rs.1.5 lakh tax, i.e. 20%.
  • Tax exemption removed in insurance policies with premiums more than Rs 5 lakh.

Indirect Taxes

  • A total of Rs 15,29,200 crore is expect to collected in indirect tax in 2023-24. Thus the government estimates it will raise Rs 9,56,600 crore through GST.
  • The number of basic customs duty rates on goods other than textiles and agriculture reduced to 13 from 21.
  • Crude, glycerine basic custom duty reduced to 2.5%.
  • Silver bars import duty hiked to align it with gold and platinum.

What gets cheaper

Image showing what gets cheaper in 2023

What gets costlier

Image showing what gets costlier

Allocation of specific ministries

Image showing fund allocation for specific ministries.

Saving Schemes

  • In the budget the maximum deposit limit for Senior Citizen Savings Scheme increase to Rs 30 lakh from Rs 15 lakh.
  • Similarly the Monthly Income Scheme limit double to Rs 9 lakh and Rs 15 lakh for joint accounts.
  • Mahila Samman Saving Certificate, a one-time new saving scheme for women to be made available for two years up to March 2025.

Sector-wise highlights

1. Banking

Govt makes amendments to Banking Regulation Act to improve governance in banks.

2. Jobs

  • The government will launch Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana 4.0 to enable much Indian youth to take up industry-relevant skill training.
  • Similarly 30 Skill India International Centers will be set up across different States to upskill the youth for international opportunities.

3. Infrastructure & Investments

  • Creating urban infrastructure in Tier 2 and Tier 3 cities via establishing UIDF.
  • Increased capital investment outlay by 33.4% to Rs.10 lakh crore.
  • Continuation of a 50-year interest-free loan to State governments to incentivize infrastructure investment.
  • Highest ever capital outlay of Rs.2.4 lakh crore for Railways

4. Energy & Environment

  • Rs 35,000 crores priority capital for the energy transition.
  • Battery Energy Storage Systems with 4,000 MWh capacity will be supported with viability gap funding.
  • Companies, individuals, and local bodies will be eligible for a Green Credit Programme under the Environment (Protection) Act of 1986 to encourage and collect resources for environmentally sustainable actions.
  • For funds to be allocated for replacing old polluted vehicles.
  • Moreover Setting up 10,000 bio inputs resource centres to facilitate farmers to adopt natural farming.

5. Health

  • One hundred fifty-seven new nursing colleges are going to establish.
  • Sickle cell anaemia elimination mission is going to launch covering seven crore people in the age group 0-40 in affected tribal areas.
  • A new programme to promote research in pharmaceuticals will be launching.

6. Education

  • National Digital libraries are to be set up for children and adolescents.
  • States to set up physical libraries at panchayat and ward levels.
  • Revamped teacher’s training via District Institutes of Education and Training.

7. Agriculture

  • An Agriculture Accelerator Fund will set up to encourage agri-startups in rural areas.
  • Also a sub-scheme of PM Matsya Sampada Yojana will launch with an investment of Rs 6,000 crore to support fishermen, fish vendors, and MSMEs.
  • Decentralized storage capacity will set up for farmers to store their produce.
  • 20 lakh crore agricultural credit targeted at Animal husbandry, Dairy and fisheries sector.

8. Finance

  • Setting up National Financial Information Register to enable efficient lending, promote financial inclusion and enhance financial stability.
  • Similarly setting up a Central data processing centre for faster handling of administrative work under the companies act.

9. Urban development

  • An Urban Infrastructure Development Fund will establish to develop urban infrastructure by public agencies in tier-2 and tier-3 cities.
  • States and cities will encourage to undertake urban planning reforms such as efficient land use and transit-oriented development.

10. Research And Development (R&D)

  • Three centres of excellence for R&D in Artificial Intelligence (AI) will establish in select educational institutions.
  • Surely 100 labs will set up in engineering institutions for developing 5G applications.

11. Sports

  • Rs 3,397.32 crore is allocated to Sports, an increase of Rs 723.97 crore and the country’s highest-ever sports budget allocation.
  • Moreover National sports federation (nsfoi) gets a hike of Rs.325 crore.
  • Sports Authority of India (SAI) receives Rs.785.52 crore.
  • Also 1,045 crore is allocated to ‘Khelo India’.

12. Space

  • Department of Space has been allocated Rs.12,544 crore.
  • Rs 408.69 crore is allocated to Physical Research Laboratory.

Budget Estimates of 2023-24

  • Total Expenditure: Clearly the government estimate to spend Rs 45,03,097 crore in 2023-24, an increase of 7.5% over the revised estimate of 2022-23.
  • Revenue Expenditure: Out of the total expenditure, revenue expenditure estimate to be Rs 35,02,136 crore, an increase of 1.2%.
  • Capital Expenditure: Capital expenditure estimate to be Rs 10,00,961 crore, which is a 37.4% increase. The increase in capital expenditure is due to an increase in capital outlay on transport (including railways, roads and bridges, and inland water transport) by Rs 1,28,863 crore (36.1% increase).
  • Total receipts: Government receipts (borrowings excluded) are estimated to be Rs 27,16,281 crore, an increase of 11.7% over the revised estimates for 2022-23.
  • Estimated GDP growth: The nominal GDP will grow at 10.5% in 2023-24.
  • Transfer to states: The central government will transfer Rs 18,62,874 crore to states and union territories. Thus an increase of 8.9% over the revised estimates for 2022-23.

Check our Year In Review 2022 blog, where we cover all the major events and highlights of the business and tech world in the year 2022.


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Understanding Embedded Finance

What is Embedded Finance?

Embedded finance is a fintech sub-sector and the term refers to integration of financial services into non-financial business or services. This integration allows businesses to provide financial services to their customers without them having to leave their platform. For example, every time you pay for your purchased goods or services online without having to leave the app, its the magic of embedded finance. Other examples include digital wallets, payment processing, pay-later, insurance, loans, etc. This became trendy in the last couple of years, as it boomed particularly in 2020.

Embedded Finance Technologies

Embedded Payments

This is a type of payment system that is integrated into the overall functionality of app or website. Embedded Finance allow users to make payments within the application or website without the need to leave and go to a separate payment processing page. Embedded payments were the first financial service to be incorporated into non-financial products. And probably the most well-known type of embedded finance offering. Some of Embedded payments use cases are subscription based services, E-commerce, in-game purchases, crowdfunding campaigns, online marketplaces etc. Google Pay, Amazon Pay and Venmo are few examples of embedded payment applications.

Embedded Buy Now Pay Later Installment Plans

Companies now offer Buy now Pay later services where the consumers can get the product right away and pay for it over time in installments. This installment plan option undergo presentation during mobile checkout. For example, Amazon Pay offers a Pay later option of 3 to 12 interest-free installment plans.

Embedded Lending

Embedded lending is another layer of Buy now Pay later. It refers to the integration of lending functionality into the existing processes and systems of a company through their embedded finance offerings. This type of lending allows companies to offer financing options directly to their customers, without the need for customers to go through a separate lending institution. Consumers don’t need to go to the banks right now to get a loan now. Example: Using Instant Settlements for Marketplace Sellers, marketplace sellers can receive loans based on their sales data which is fetched directly from the marketplace platform utilizing safe and secure APIs in seconds.

Embedded Investing

Embedded investing refers to the integration of investment options directly into a company’s existing products, services, or platforms. The goal of embedded investing is to make it easier and more convenient for customers. This is by enabling them to invest in various financial assets without leaving the platform. Example: Embedded investment firms include programs like Robinhood, Cash App, and Acorns through which selling, buying, and exchanging stocks are all possible without leaving the app or interacting with an investment advisor.

Embedded Insurance

Embedded insurance is integration of insurance products and services directly into a company’s existing platforms. This enables any third-party provider to integrate insurance products into its customers’ purchase journeys seamlessly at a low cost. They are a much better option than the complicated traditional process of buying insurance plans. Here you no longer need to meet an insurance agent to get coverage for an upcoming trip or a new purchase.

Example: Travel or Booking companies have embedded the insurance application process into the checkout experience. Here travelers can purchase it during booking time.

Why Embedded Finance matters?

The market size of embedded finance has grown rapidly in last few years. Many non-financial businesses are offering embedded finance services already. The largest usage of embedded finance today is for payments. It includes the possibility for e-commerce companies to perform payments on their sites without entering bank details.

Stats & Numbers

  • This finance predicts to become a multi-trillion dollar opportunity. Its market value estimate to be bigger than the current value of all fintech startups and global banks and insurers combined.
The stats shows the estimated market value of embedded finance by 2030.
Source: Simone torrance

  • Embedded finance have attracted more than 3 billion dollars in funding in 2021. This is 3X the growth compared to 2020. ( according to a research by Dealroom).
Embedded finance stats showing funding it recieved in 2021.
  • Opportunities by sector:

Following is estimated sector wise opportunity of Embedded Finance Industry by 2030

Image showing sector wise oppurtunity of embedded finance industry by 2023
  • Marketplaces are increasingly embedding financial services to seek higher valuation than their peers. Fintech enabled marketplaces receive 6.7X higher valuation compared to the other. Few examples of fintech enabled marketplaces are Airbnb, Uber, Shopify etc.

Players in the embedded finance ecosystem

Following are the few of the major embedded finance companies around the world:

Embedded finance companies around the world

Embedded Finance and Banking as a service (BaaS)

Embedded finance and BaaS have attracted billions of dollars in funding and grew 3x in 2021. Both expect to take the world by storm over the coming years.

What is the difference between Embedded Finance and BaaS?

Embedded Finance and BaaS go hand in hand. Even though each differ in their focus areas, there always seems to be a confusion on how they differ from one another.

Embedded finance is more front-end and focuses on the customer experience. Also it provides financial solutions along with buying other goods or services. Here, financial services and products directly integrate into an existing services or platforms of a business.

BaaS is a model where banks and financial institutions provide banking services and technology to other companies, allowing them to offer financial services to their own customers. BaaS is a bank-like service that have more digital consumption. They typically involves licensing of banking infrastructure, such as payment processing and lending capabilities, to non-bank companies.

Industries that are adopting Embedded Finance techs

Embedded finance is rapidly expanding and supports the growth of non-financial corporations, including consumer goods brands, retailers, travel, tech and software businesses, automakers and insurance firms. They are providing great growth opportunity in lucrative B2C and B2B segment in various sectors including E-commerce, Travel, Healthcare, Education, Pharma, Real Estate and Entertainment.

Retail & E-commerce estimate to have a growth opportunity of $3500 billion dollars, whereas healthcare and education expect to grow up-to $1500 and $500 billion dollars by 2030. Other sectors including real estate, travel, mobility, energy, pharmaceuticals expect to have a total growth opportunity of $1500 billion dollars by 2030.

What is the Future of Embedded Finance? How will it change Fintech?

The future of Embedded finance is bright and the market expect to grow into multi trillion dollars in value by 2030. Moreover popularity of digital platforms, growth of mobile E-commerce, rise of fintech and the sharing economy are the main driving factors of embedded finance.

With the rise of digital transformation and the growing demand for financial services that are convenient, accessible, and integrated into everyday life, embedded finance is well-positioned to meet these needs.


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What is Cryptocurrency Insurance?

Crypto insurance secures the losses associated with cyber security breaches. Most cryptocurrency transactions contribute at least some Insurance to secure digital assets against losses from security breaches and theft. In short, Cryptocurrency insurance covers investors and exchanges against funds lost due to theft to a limited extent.

Why Does Crypto Need Insurance?

It’s a fact that crypto agencies can’t handle all the risk by themselves, and they need to transfer some of it to an insurance provider who provides them assurance. Insurance is vital for cryptocurrency companies as they require all the assistance to protect their digital assets.

A report detailing cryptocurrency insurance states that about $1.3 billion was stolen from exchanges since the first Bitcoin block was mined back in 2009. As per the report an average of $2.7 million of assets was stolen daily in the year 2018. And so, Insurance is highly essential in reducing the risk for those who wish to hold digital assets.

There is endless potential for the transaction of vast amounts of Cryptocurrency immediately, as misappropriation is incredibly easy. Concerning money, one has to steal it, and there are limitations on how much cash one can withdraw. Besides that, it is possible to trace money too.

Considering Crypto, a potential thief must drudge into a crypto buyer’s critical details and digitally transfer the amount they wish straight into their anonymous account. 

Regarding the best crypto insurance provider , you must figure that out for yourself. Check the company that offers a range of insurance protection and products.

How Does It Work?

Usually, investors who own conventional securities, such as bonds or stocks, will always have insurance backing from either the government or private insurance agencies. However, crypto investors do not automatically have those same protections.

That’s where crypto insurance provides cryptocurrency owners with protection for their investments.

There is a rise in demand for this type of Insurance, especially while considering events like burglary. However, the main problem for insurers is the approval process when solid risk judgements become problematic due to a shortage of cohesive restrictions within crypto-insurance management. Some advanced and recent startups are more proactive in this area, but the remaining still need to be.

So, if the industry is still developing and unstable, the need for the safeguards of Cryptocurrency is highly essential.

Which type of Businesses requires Cryptocurrency Insurance?

A business needs insurance to protect its assets and financial interests from unpredicted events that could jeopardize its future, and crypto companies are no different. Here are some examples of blockchain and crypto companies :

  • Cryptocurrency trading
  • Performing crypto custody (guarding third-party assets)
  • Managing cryptocurrency assets
  • Provide a payment remittance platform

If your crypto business belongs to any of these categories or another blockchain-related area, consider looking for the right coverages for your company. 

The Risks that Cryptocurrency Companies Face

The nature of Cryptocurrency shows that main risks these companies face are related to the online platform. As a digital currency, Cryptocurrency does not have a physical form, and all transactions, investments, and payments occur online.

That’s why the most risk for crypto companies is the risk of a cyberattack. Cybercriminals target crypto companies because Cryptocurrency is extremely hard to trace once they start transactions around. Even if a company has highly robust cybersecurity measures, hackers are continually searching for improved ways to attack, and their activities are becoming highly sophisticated.

Social Engineering

It is a common way for hackers to get into your network. They pose as a genuine and trustworthy source and may trick any of your employees by giving them free entry to their accounts or the internal system. Social engineering attacks are a small threat to online safety, and the only way to block them is to educate employees to recognize them. Once hackers access your systems, nothing stops them from stealing your coins. It may take days to find out the breach and the damages caused by them.

Hackers may also decide to take access to your data hostage. It is possible for them to take your credentials or confidential information of clients and request ransom payment in Cryptocurrency to release the data back to you.


If you are providing services related business or are in the service-providing business, you risk making a professional mistake or omission. For example, if you request your client to invest coins in the wrong fund and, in return, lose money, you can expect them to sue you for bad advice.Indeed, these risks are not particular to only cryptocurrency business, but their risk profile is unique because of their sole nature. 

Many insurers are ready to take some risk from crypto companies recently and provide them with adequate cryptocurrency insurance policies.

Why Does Crypto Insurance matter?

Well, for beginners, no matter how much cryptocurrency inventors have been avoiding regulation, governments and regulatory authorities will make an impact at a particular point. How this insurance works relies entirely on individual organizations prepared to take on underwriting and Insurance of the existing digital assets. Some crypto insurance companies are building the crypto economy – a more fair, accessible, efficient, and transparent financial system enabled by Crypto.

And they’re not taking this lightly! They have about 73 million verified users and 10,000 institutions, and 185,000 ecosystem partners operating or living in over 100 countries. Moreover, they have approximately $255 billion in assets on their platform.

The form of legal tender used to acquire the digital asset becomes part of the risk portfolio that insurers will assess when deciding whether to underwrite and take on an insurance policy. So ultimately, insurers will be looking for greater regulatory clarity in the coming years before extending coverage further for more competitive pricing points. They will have to get there relatively quickly too. 

Digital assets are hardly a new phenomenon, and if we’re going to include Crypto under that umbrella term. Then insurers and bankers will have to get in on the action if they want to participate in a market that will only grow and become even more lucrative.

What Crypto Insurance Doesn’t Cover?

This is highly dependent on the insurer, but usually, the policy will only cover direct hardware loss and damage and the exchange of Cryptocurrency to a third party. Additionally, it won’t protect against disruption or failure of the blockchain underlying the asset. 

Crypto Insurance Financing

It should remember that the сryptocurrency transactions consist mainly of startup businesses, and it’s simply not big enough to support revenue for the insurance industry yet. The fascinating fact about the safe storage of these coins is that while some users are held in hot storage — i.e., in locations provided by the internet, many other users are disconnected from the repository from the internet. And therefore, no one can ascertain their insurance status. 

Can we purchase cryptocurrency insurance for ourselves?

It’s true, although it’s more complex than answering with one word. Due to the relative immaturity of cryptocurrency market, most crypto assets still need to insure.

There is a greater likelihood that exchanges that trade cryptocurrencies will hold the most significant section of the cryptocurrency insurance market than individual traders. You must check directly with that platform to determine whether you are covered as a crypto purchaser when selling on a particular platform.

But what about private crypto insurance for individuals? While some companies are evolving to offer private crypto-insurance, their levels and extent differ immensely.

Better to start small. Build your portfolio skillfully and patiently using credible exchange. Also don’t be sucked into “too good to be true” promotional deposits that promise huge profits.


Can I insure my Cryptocurrency?

You can have insurance protection through the crypto exchange you use to buy and hold your crypto assets. But one should note that not all deals offer insurance coverage, and the type of insurance policy also varies from one exchange to the other.

Does Insurance cover crypto theft?

An indemnity is provided for losses incurred as a result of cryptocurrency theft. If your hot wallets were hacked, a crime insurance policy would reimburse you for the loss of digital assets. Theft and fraud are common in the digital field, and so the area of the cryptocurrency industry is not spared.

Is it possible to recover stolen Crypto?

Yes, A crypto assets recovery service can help you recover your crypto assets. The recovery of crypto assets is indeed possible. However, it can be problematic in the absence of correct information. So you need to know every detail to recover your lost/stolen crypto assets.

Next: Interested in the economics of cryptocurrencies and blockchain? Check out our blog on Tokenomics .


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Image showing individuals in an investment bank

International Investment Banks India

What is an Investment Bank?

An investment bank is a financial service provider that serves as an intermediary in large and complex financial transactions. These banks provide financial services such as deals in stocks and bonds, mergers and acquisitions, pension fund management, financial sponsorship, and payment solutions for corporate.

There are many international investment banks in India. They help businesses and Governments to raise funds through access of capital markets, such as stock and bond markets. An investment banker assist startups to prepares for the launch of an initial public offering (IPO) or when a company merges with competitors. 


  • Offers financial services and advisory to individuals, companies, and the Government.
  • Provide insights/knowledge about the risks and benefits of investing their money in other companies.
  • Matches sellers and investors in financial markets and economy, adding more liquidity to markets.
  • Undergoes thorough investigation of the deal/project to minimize the risk associated with the same.
  • Connect investors and companies to makes financial development more productive and promote business growth.

How do International Investment banks work?

International banks in India are often classified into 2 categories:- Buy side and sell side. Buy side of the investment bank aims to maximize returns while investing/trading securities like stocks and bonds. It generally includes with pension funds, mutual funds, hedge funds, and the investing public. On the other hand, sell side of the investment includes selling shares of newly issued IPOs, placing new bond issues, involving in market-making services, and support clients to facilitate transactions.

Based on the services provides, Investment banks have three divisions including:-

  • Front office:- Front office is the most important department in an investment banks that creates maximum revenue in an investment banking firm. Some of the front office services consist of merchant banking, strategy formulation, professional investment management, and so on.
  • Middle office:- Middle office services include compliance with Government regulations and restrictions for clients such as banks, insurance companies, and finance divisions. These are the people who manage fundraising and internal control systems. 
  • Back office:- Back office services are the part and parcel of investment bank. The services includes creating new trading algorithms, authenticating data of previous trades of investment bank regulates all operations and technology platform.

Types of Investment Banks

The following are the 4 types of Investment banks:

1.) Regional Boutique Investment Banks

Regional boutique investment banks are smaller investment banks and have small workforce. These banks specialize in providing a range of financial services to clients within a particular geographic region. They typically focus on serving mid-sized and smaller companies, rather than large corporations, and may have expertise in specific industries or sectors.

2.) Elite Boutique Investment Banks

Elite boutique investment banks specialize in providing high-end financial advisory services to clients. They are typically smaller in size and more specialized than larger investment banks and often work with clients in specific industries or sectors.

3.) Full-service Investment Banks

Also called Bulge Bracket Investment banks, Full-service investment bank are the largest and most comprehensive investment banks that offers a full range of investment banking services.

4.) Middle Market Investment Banks

Middle market investment banks specialize in providing corporate finance and advisory services to companies with annual revenues ranging from $10 million to $1 billion. They mostly deal with mid-market firms, specifically for raising debt or equity capital, as well as mergers and acquisitions.

International Investment banks in India

J.P Morgan

J P Morgan is the leading International investment bank operating in Mumbai since 1930. The firm began by offering commercial banking services and was later spread into other sectors. They offer financial services to clients in more than 100 countries to do business and manage their wealth. As a comprehensive product platform, client’s interest is their core principle.

  • Headquarters: New York, USA
  • India Office: Mumbai
  • Employees: 294,000(Approx)

Goldman Sachs

Goldman Sachs is global investment bank founded in 1869. Its headquarter is in New York. The firm provides services such as investment banking, securities services, global banking, and markets. It serves India’s leading companies and has corporate customers throughout the country. They maintain offices around the world and in India, they have offices in Mumbai, Bangalore, and Hyderabad.

  • Headquarters: New York, USA
  • India Office: Bangalore
  • Employees: 49,000(Approx)

Morgan Stanley

Morgan Stanley is an international investment bank that has branches in Mumbai and Bangalore. They provide best consultation, fundraising services, fund management, research, and investment banking services to Governments, corporations, institutions, and individuals around the world. The firm focus to maintain first class service and high standard of excellence for its clients over 85 years.

  • Headquarters: New York, USA
  • India Office: Mumbai, Bangalore
  • Employees: 82,000(Approx)

Citigroup Global Markets (CGM)

CGM India is a subsidiary of Citigroup Inc incorporated in 2000. It has a large team of experts with industry experience and a strong network providing services such as investment banking, securities trading, and market analysis. Further, CGM is the a member of both the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE) as well.

  • Headquarters: New York, USA
  • India Office: Mumbai
  • Employees: 240,000(Approx)

BofA Securities India Limited

Bank of America is one of the leading International investment bank. This firm was formerly known as Bank of America Merrill Lynch. The firm was established in India since 1964, which has offices in Chennai, Mumbai, Bangalore, and New Delhi. Further, they offer fund raising, M & A advisory, securities research, trade facilities to its clients in India.

  • Headquarters: North Carolina, USA
  • India Office: Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore
  • Employees: 217,000(Approx)

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited

Deloitte is the world’s largest professional services network. It is a Big Four accounting firms with operations in over 150 countries and territories worldwide. In 1972, the firm was combined with with Haskins & Sells and merged with Touche Ross to form Deloitte & Touche and later was renamed Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu in 1993. The company offers audit, assurance, and risk advisory services to clients including multinational enterprises and major Japanese business entities.

  • Headquarters: London, England
  • India Office: Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Gurugram, Pune
  • Employees: 415,000(Approx)

Deutsche Bank

Deutsche Bank is a global leader in investment banking. Its headquarter is in German with its operations in Europe, the Americas, and Asia. As of 2020, it was the world’s 21st largest bank by total assets and 63rd largest by market capitalization, providing various services to financial sector worldwide. 

  • Headquarters: Frankfurt, Germany
  • India Office:
  • Employees: 85,000(Approx)

Credit Suisse

Credit Suisse is a global Investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland and is engaged in services like private equity, asset management, research etc.

  • Headquarters: Zurich, Switzerland
  • India Office: Mumbai, Pune, Gurgaon
  • Employees: 50,000(Approx)

Barclays Bank

Barclays is a British multinational Bank providing services like private banking, personal banking, corporate banking and investment banking. They currently operate across the globe.

  • Headquarters: London, UK
  • India Office: Mumbai, Bangalore, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata
  • Employees: 81,000(Approx)

BNP Paribus

BNP Paribus is a french international banking group and is one of the 10 largest banks of the world. They help corporates and its clients in Investment Banking solutions and also offer other global financial services. BNP Paribus has presence over 65+ countries and territories on 5 continents.

  • Headquarters: Paris, France
  • India Office: Mumbai, Kolkata
  • Employees: 1,90,000


Investment banks are popular financial institutions that serve large organizations and companies to take important financial decisions and grow their business. Briefly, They are experts who undergo thorough investigation and understand the feasibility of large projects to assure that the company’s money goes into safe hands.

Next: Discover the reasons behind the recent crash of Silicon Valley Bank.


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Equity Capital

Equity Capital is also known as partnership equity or joint venture equity. In business, equity means ownership of certain assets that can have common debts or other corresponding liabilities attached to them. Equity is measured for accounting purposes by deducting common liabilities from the current value of the assets.

A partnership is one type of equity investment. When there are two or more partners, each holding a share in the partnership, their equity grows as their holdings’ value is increasing. A limited liability company (LLC) is another type of equity capital.

Its shareholders determine the equity in a corporation. The shareholders typically decide how the money will be invested. One type of equity capital is debt-equity. Debt equity refers to a partnership that has a debt with another firm. The debt is secured by a similar firm with an agreement to pay the firm a certain amount of money if the debtor goes bankrupt.

Many businesses use equity capital funds to purchase land, buildings, and assets for expansion or new start-up ventures. They also use this to buy long-term assets, such as office space, trucks, buses, furniture, and machinery. Other companies make use of equity capital to meet short-term financing needs.

Investors can buy equity capital from firms, banks, or other financial institutions. There are equity funds that sell their own equity. They also sell bonds and mutual funds that combine with equity funds. These types of equity firms are most commonly known as penny stocks.

Penny stocks are typically offered for sale in packages of a hundred or more shares. Investors can buy such packages at low prices. They can be an excellent way to invest small amounts of money since they do not require you to pay upfront for them as regular equity capital companies do. However, you must still follow investment advice for them.

Equity firms also make use of debt to raise funds. Equity firms can take debt to raise equity. If the company that owns the debt goes bankrupt, so will the investors who have invested in the debt. This leaves the business owner having to hire new employees to pay off debts. Some equity firms may also sell their debt to other companies in the same industry to raise it.

There are equity firms available all over the world to assist businesses in raising this. Many equity firms offer websites where companies can browse through and find equity capital they interest in purchasing. These firms allow you to make a list of requirements, such as credit history and years of experience in your chosen field. You then submit your information on yourself. Within a few days, you should receive an e-mail from one of these equity firms informing you that you have to approve for applying it. If this is not the case, you may want to consult with a lawyer specializing in working with equity capital.

Equity Capital is essential in a growing business. When your business grows large enough to be profitable, you will require to pay cash to acquire new clients and meet expenses. If you do not have access to equity capital, you could be unable to pay your cash needs. Equity Capital allows you to obtain resources to grow your business for free.

Some equity firms offer services that make obtaining this easier. Some equity firms may provide you with a checklist you can use to ensure you have met the minimum amount of equity capital required. It allows you to save time and money by taking care of the details so that the investor will find you. Equity Capital will enable you to expand your business quickly and with less hassle.

When looking for such a firm, you will want to find one that will work with you. Some firms are eager to get started, but they do not provide ongoing support after you have raised equity capital. Equity firms that work with you will want to continue to work with you even after you have raised equity capital. When you work with a reasonable equity broker or firm, they will also want to continue to work with you until your business is going to establish and you have a steady flow of clients. Working with an equity broker or firm will help to ease the transition for you and your business.

After you have raised equity capital, you should consider paying down debt as quickly as possible. Debt decreases equity and makes it harder to obtain future capital. Remember to consult with your broker or firm before you do anything else. With thorough planning and sound judgment, you will be able to find the best loan for your business and use equity capital loans wisely.

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